From Prototype to Production...
A Case Study of the Evolution of a Design
Also see Numo The System exercise machine
Check back for Information on new The Lean Machine Mach II
Lean Machine pioneered the
technology for affordable low-inertia resistance exercise in the home-user market.
Exploring the various stages of Lean Machine's development will highlight the
interrelationship of technology, design, manufacturing, and marketing. Corporate
strategy and identity also play key roles, both in the types of products a company
develops, and in the way in which a particular product idea is rendered by its designers.
Why Low-Inertia Exercise
Traditionally, resistance exercise (weightlifting) relies on heavy weights to provide
the resistance. But iron weights are costly to manufacture and ship, and the weight
machine must be built to withstand the mass and impact forces of the moving weight
stack. And more importantly, weights also introduce the counter-productive
phenomenon known by fitness experts as the adverse effect of inertia.
The adverse effect of inertia is caused by the forces that result when the heavy weight
changes direction or speed during an exercise movement. A 100-pound weight, for
example, delivers 100 pounds of resistance only when the weight is at rest or moving at a
steady-state speed. But during exercise, weights are almost always either
accelerating, decelerating, or reversing direction. So a 100 pound weight
rarely delivers 100 pounds of resistance. Sometimes the resistance is far less
(letting the barbell drop from the chest on the negative stroke of a curl, for example),
and sometimes the resistance is significantly greater (bringing the barbell to a quick
stop at the bottom of a curl). Click on Figure 3 in the left column for a graph of
the resistance fluctuations during a correctly performed (slowly) bench press on a weight
Not only does the adverse effect of inertia reduce workout benefits, inertia problems
are also responsible for many weightlifting injuries. And because weight systems are
limited to slow movements, it is virtually impossible to do aerobic exercise on a weight
Shortfall of Conventional Elastic Resistance Machines
The adverse effect of intertia can be eliminated by replacing weights with elastic
elements (springs, rubber cords, etc). But simply making the switch to elastic
resistance does not, by itself, result in a proper low inertia exercise machine. In
fact, it introduces a new problem that is even more counter-productive.
All elastic elements have an intrinsic characteristic know as "spring rate."
The spring rate is the rate at which tension increases as the element is deflected.
When elastic resistance is directly applied, this characteristic makes it
impossible to maintain a particular resistance level over the exercise movement. As
the element is deflected, resistance goes up, and as it is relaxed, resistance goes
down. Because of spring rate, users are forced to select a resistance that will be
within their strength capability at maximum deflection, or the exercise movement cannot be
done at all. As a result, during the first 50 percent or more of the
movement, resistance is too low to produce much benefit. Figure 4 shows the
resistance curve of a popular exercise machine that uses rubber elements for resistance.
The Lean Machine Solution
Inertia effects are solved in Lean Machine's design by using inexpensive springs
instead of weights to provide the resistance. The negative effect of spring rate is
eliminated by using a patented spring-rate-canceling cam to deflect the springs.
When the springs deflect, the cam guides the connection point inward toward the axle at a
rate that precisely cancels out the increase in tension. In this way, the cam
maintains a consistently uniform level of resistance throughout the entire range of both
positive and negative exercise movements (click on Figure 5 for an illustration).
Precise resistance selectivity is provided by a secondary idler arm (the
counterforce arm in Figure 5) having an adjustable input connection point. When
the input is positioned nearer the pivot, resistance is lower. When it is positioned
farther from the pivot, resistance is greater. Resistance is thereby infinitely
adjustable up to 200 pounds; or greater, depending on the design of the springs. A scale
on the side of the arm shows the selected resistance in pounds.
First-Generation Production Model
One of the keys to pioneering a new product is to minimize early investment before the
market has been proven. The design of the first-generation production version
of Lean Machine was therefore dictated mainly by financial constraints, which were a
result of marketing uncertainties. The primary marketing uncertainty of Lean Machine
emerged from the fact that it was based on new and unfamiliar technology - and the fact
that weightlifting (at the time) had significant macho overtones. Management was
uncertain as to whether a "real man" would feel as good about "pumping
coils" as he would about pumping iron, regardless of the greater benefits.
To minimize expenses for tooling and fixtures, the first production version was
designed around cut-and-weld manufacturing processes and off-the-shelf components.
Resistance springs, for example, were stock garage door springs. The plastic housing
that contained the springs was cut from 20-foot lengths of sewer pipe. The large
round pulley and elliptical cam were hand fabricated from laminated blanks of black
acrylic. Lean Machine was put into production on a budget of just slightly above
zero for tooling, fixtures, and equipment.
Early direct response marketing brochures are shown in Figures 6 and 7. Once a
sales history had been established, Lean Machine was quickly slated for redesign, and a
budget for tooling and fixtures was allocated for the new model.
The Lean Machine Pro
The primary objectives for the design of the second generation product were to simplify
the resistance system, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve the product's appearance.
Focus groups had indicated that consumers were turned off by exposed pulleys and
cables. So a covered upper pulley system with a self-retracting cable was also on the wish
Prior to the Lean
Machine Pro, styling was almost an afterthought in the design of fitness
equipment. Our sense of it was, like the body the machine is designed to
create, the equipment itself should also appear strong, graceful, and well proportioned -
a look of elegance in form and function. But while it is easy to make an elegant
statement about appearance, transforming the idea into a real product is more diffiuclt.
full-size non-working mockup of the new design was delivered within six weeks.
The architecture and ergonomics of the design were already well established. But
detailed engineering still had to be done onthe resistance package, which had been reduced
to a simple canister containing two torsion springs, one on each side of a centrally
Simplified Resistance System
On the first Lean Machine, the cam pulled against a pair of extension springs via a cable.
So the spring rate was cancelled on the input side. Linear torque was then
transferred through the frame to a round output pulley on the other side where a second
cable transferred torque to the idler arm. With the new design, the round
pulley was eliminated, springs were connected directly to the cam, and the cam was
connected by a single cable to the idler arm. Rate-canceling was therefore handled
on the output side rather than the input side. This reduced the entire resistance
system to a relatively simple, self-contained canister (see Figure 9 to the left).
The system was cycle-life tested to one million cycles.
Self-Retracting Upper Cable
One of the most challenging tasks was the request for an upper cable
system with a self-retracting cable. Early on, the option of a spring-loaded
reel was discarded as too costly and too prone to malfunction under the loads experienced
in the application. Ultimately, however, the challenge yielded to the most
elegantly simple solution; one that was trouble free and cost only about 50 cents to
manufacture. We simply attached a weight to the fixed end of the cable, just
behind the point where it exits the frame, and let the falling weight pull the cable
inside the frame. To connect the upper cable to the idler arm, the user simply
grabbed onto the connector and pulled it toward its connection fixture at the end of the
idler arm. To stow the cable, the user simply unsnapped it from the arm and let go
of it. As the weight fell, the cable disappeared inside the frame.
A commitment to production was made in June, just weeks after the mockup was
delivered. By September, parts procurement was already underway, even though some
components were still being designed. With December delivery, The Lean Machine Pro
quickly became a success with consumers. Switching from direct response
advertising to retail dealers, a network of 400 retail dealers was established within the
first six months.
SCA Health and Fitness
The Lean Machine Division of Inertia Dynamics Corporation (now Ryobi) was ultimately
purchased by SCA Wolff System (tanning bed distributor) as the beginning step in the
formation of SCA Health and Fitness Corporation.